The Afghan War is the internal conflict that started in 1978 between anti-communist Islamic guerrillas and the communist government in Afghanistan at the time, aided by Soviet troops, leading to the government being overthrown in 1992. On a broader perspective, the term also refers to military activity in Afghanistan post-1992, but other than the Afghanistan War that ended in 2014, a U.S-led invasion was launched in response to the 9/11 attacks in 2001. In the light of this broader definition, several analysts consider the Afghan War to have lasted through the 21st century and overlap with the U.S-led Afghanistan War.
Stuck in a prolonged conflict, faced by an uncertain political climate, and beginning a strenuous peace process, Afghanistan already was in a difficult situation when the Covid-19 struck. Taking early action in order to prevent the potential consequences of the pandemic crisis was the top priority for the government, given that the health infrastructure of the country is fragile. However, compared to the other countries grappling with the pandemic, the economic situation due to lockdowns has added to the uncertainty that Afghanistan faces. Since March, the government imposed restrictions all over the country, forcing a lot of people to struggle with unemployment, increased job insecurity, and limited working days. Almost 15 million Afghans in 2 million households are especially vulne...
Substantial increments in developmental outcomes have been increasingly observed in Afghanistan since 2001, especially in expanded access to sanitation, electricity, water, health services and education. Macro-economic management continues to be strong; government revenues have increased consistently since 2014, and the government has engaged in public financial management reforms and creating a business environment. Expanded access to education, infrastructure and health has seen fantastic progress in outcomes, with Afghanistan climbing up the ladder, overtaking other low-income countries over crucial development indicators. While the progress has remained uneven, increased access to infrastructure and services has resulted in substantial development gains.
The Afghan afghani is the official national currency of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. The ISO 4217 code of the currency, AFN, was introduced in 2002 as a means of stabilizing the currency and reducing inflation. Before this change, the afghani was circulated under the symbol AFA. Even though the AFN enjoys comparatively lower rates of inflation today, Afghanistan has gone through severe inflation in the past. Today, the afghani is managed by the central bank of Afghanistan "Da Afghanistan Bank." The objective of its monetary policy is to minimize the risk of inflation while regulating the floating exchange rate regime.
Parties are bodies that represent the aspirations of the people. Parties will thrive if they can understand what the people want and perish if they don’t. They aggregate the interests of different groups and form alliances between leaders and groups located in different regions and have different economic interests. Successful parties are those which provide a big umbrella under which a wide variety of groups feel at home. They involve the people by registering voters and recruiting members. Parties also stimulate debate which is the driving force behind competitive ideas in politics.